Bernston, G. M. (1994). “Modeling Root Architecture: Are There Tradeoffs between Efficiency and Potentialof Resource Acquisition.” New Phytologist 127(3): 483 – 493.
Carrion, J. S., M. Munuera, M. Dupre, A. Andrade (2001). “Abrupt Vegetation Changes in the Segura Mountains of Southern Spain throughout the Holocene.” The Journal of Ecology 89(5): 783 – 797.
Chuine, I. a. P. C. (1999). “Climatic determinants of budburst seasonality in four temperate-zone tree species.” New Phytologist 143(2): 339 – 349.
Several physiological processes controlling tree phenology remain poorly understood and in particular bud dormancy. Many studies have emphasised the action of chilling temperatures in breaking dormancy. However, the effect of the preceding summer temperature has rarely been investigated although there is some evidence that they may be involved in the settlement and intensity of dormancy as well as cold acclimation. In this paper, thermal time to budburst in relation to the duration of chilling outdoors, preceding summer temperatures and forcing temperatures was studied by outdoors experiments in seedlings of Platanus acerifolia, Vitis vinifera, Quercus pubescens and Castanea sativa. Results showed that temperatures of the predceding summer had no significant effect on the timing of budburst, P. acerifolia and Q. pubescens showed a very weak response to the duration of chilling, and the phenological characteristics of each species were found to be adapted to the climate conditions of its own geographical area. The phenological model used in this study explained 82-100% of the variance of the data without taking into account summer temperatures. Thus, although summer temperatures may be well involved in the intensity of dormancy and cold hardiness, they do not significantly affect budburst and therefore may not need to be considered in phenological models for predicting budburst.
Corino, L., L. Sansone, and S. Dellepiane A Survey of Recent Vineyard Stresses and Suggestions for Better Performance. International Society for Horticultural Science, ISHS Aca Horticulturae 640: XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Viticulture Living with Limitations.
In Italian vineyards and elsewhere a common concern is early vine senescence. During the past several decades, viticultural techniques have changed greatly, especially those related to improved vigor and production. From 1985 present research was carried out to understand the impact of vine stress especially that which affects vineyard longevity. Trials were carried out manily in Piedmont, Liguria and Lombardy as well as several surveys in other regions. The main observations were: climatic conditions, soil characteristics, grower proficiency and vineyard history (yield, pruning technique, soil management). Two problems have been considered, Esca disease and FD disease. It was proved that under stressful conditions, Esca disease is more virulent. Moreover, wounds on the trunk are deleterious and unsatisfactory soil structure is increasing the problem. FD seem to be closely related to plant stress caused mostly by over cropping, poor soil management, deleterious wounds on the trunk and lack of vine-site relationship within which older traditional cultivars proving to be more tolerant. As some modern cultural techniques are rather aggressive on plant and soil management, plants are increasing in vascular disorders that are greatly affecting plant longevity. In order to reduce the above-mentioned problems, improving the professionalism in vineyard management is suggested. The future of profitable viticulture should pay more attention to environmental concerns and to the production of regionally typical wines.
Cowham, S. a. A. H. (2001). “French Pinot Noir Clones – an Australian perspective.” The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker April 2001: 93 – 97.
Downey, M. O., N.K. Dokoozlian and M. P. Krstic (2006). “Cultural Practice and Environmental Impacts on the Flavonoid Composition of Grapes and Wine: A Review of Recent Research.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic 57(3): 257-268.
Flavonoids are a large and diverse group of compounds that, by their presence or absence, contribute greatly to wine quality. While the flavonoid content and composition of a wine reflects the vinification process to some extent, the primary determinant is the composition of the grapes at harvest. Thus, considerable research has been directed toward understanding the nature of flavonoids in grapevines, the factors that influence their biosynthesis, and how this knowledge might be used to manage and manipulate the flavonoid composition of berries at harvest. This review examines the flavonoids as a class of compounds, the role these compounds play in the plant, their contributions to wine quality, and recent research on the impacts of environmental factors and cultural practices on the flavonoid content and composition of grape berries.
Ebadi, A., S. Asbahi Cis, Z. Zamani, M. Reza Naghavi (2005). Influence of Three Training Systems on Fruit Yield and Quality of Five Grapevine Cultivars. International Workshop on Advances in Grapevine and Wine Research, Venosa, Italy.
Due to the vegetative and reproductive characteristics of grape, it is grown and trained on supporting systems for commercial production. The aim of training systems in grapevine growing is to maximize yield and fruit quality, facilitate garden operations and improve plant protection. A research was conducted in Horticultural Department Research Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran during period of 1998-2002, to investigate the effects of three training systems on yield, fruit quality and some vegetative characters of five grapevine cultivars. The systems used in this study were Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP), Y and Sloping-T and the cultivars were Flame Seedless, Daste Chin, Bidane Sefid, Bidane Ghermez and Shahroodi. Length of bunch and sugar content of berries were affected by training systems, but yield per vine and other measured characters were not affected. Sugar content of berries at Y and Sloping-T training systems was higher than VSP system, although there was no significant difference between them. Bunch length of bunch in Sloping-T system was higher than other systems. There were also significant differences among the cultivars that were attributed to their genetic characters. Wind blowing resulted to some problems in Sloping-T system such as breaking of shoots in early spring and rotating of vine canopy and the need to frequently tying cordons to cordon wire in this system. Since Y system had some better advantages including easier pruning and harvesting operations due to better access to canes and bunches, therefore it is suggested as the best of three systems for these five cultivars.
Evans, J., E.A.R. Tattersall, W. Johnson and G.R.Cramer (1996). “Toward Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera) Vineyard Establishment in Northern Nevada.” 1 – 5.
Fiola, J. A., R.D. Meyers, B. Beale, H. Reed and G.R. Welsh, Jr. (2006). “Winegrape Cultivar, Clone and Training System Evaluations.”
Gillerman, V. S. D. W., K. Shellie, and R. Bitner (2006). “Geology and Wine 11: Terroir of the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA.” Geoscience Canada 33(1): 37 – 43.
Heazlewood, J. (2005). “Stabilizing the yields of Pinot Noir grape vines in Tasmania.”
Howell, G. S. (2001). “Sustainable Grape Productivity and the Growth-Yield Relationship: A Review.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic 52(3): 165-169.
Research reports and experiemental efforts during the last century are presented with the goal to encourage discussion of balancing grapevine fruit yeild and vine growth and leaf area. Fruit and subsequent processed quality are equally relevant economic issues as we strive to create conditions for both sustainable grapevine productivity and vine capacity for tolerating abiotic and biotic stress episodes. It is proposed that methods to achieve vine balance will vary with regard to macroclimate and cultivar, but will be most critical for those macroclimates commonly called coolclimate regions. Regardless, vine balance is most readily understood when based on the principles of vine carbon balance as mediated through well-understood factors such as leaf area/gm fresh weight of fruit at harvest and allmetric practices as the Ravaz Index and the Growth-Yield Relationship.
Newman, J. L. (1986). “Vines, Wines and Regional Identity in the Finger Lake Region.” Geographical Reviews 76(3): 301 – 316.
Oliveir, C., A. Barbosa, A.C. Silva Ferreira, J. Guerra and P. Guedes DE Pinho (2006). “Carotenoid Profile in Grapes Related to Aromatic Compounds in Wines from Douro Region.” Journal of Food Science 71(1): 1365 – 2621.
The aim of this work was to characterize 8 representative grape varieties of the Douro Region using the carotenoid profile as it related to aromatic compounds in the respective wines. Some other analyses, such as the determination of sugar, probable alcohol, pH, and total acidity, were also performed in an attempt to understand in which way the evaluated characteristics influenced by grape variety could contribute to the wine aroma. For the 3 years of the study, grape varieties with high concentrations of carotenoids (Touriga Femea, Tinta Amarela dn Tinta Barroca) have lower values of free norisoprenoids, even with exceptions (Touriga Femea). Conversly, grape varieties with lower concentrations of carotenoids (Touriga Nacional, Sousao and Tinto Cao) appear to have higher contents of free norisoprenoid, namely b-ione for Touriga Nacional and vitispirane and 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN) Sousao and Tinto Cao. Touriga Nacional, followed by Tourig Femea, was the wine variety with the highest values of total free (linalol, a-terpinol, nerol and geraniol), the presence of which is reponsible for the floral aroma.
Ortega-Regules, A. R.-C., Inmaculada; López-Roca, Jose M; Ros-García, Jose M; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna (2006). “Anthocyanin fingerprint of grapes: environmental and genetic variations.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86(10): 1460-1467.
The anthocyanin content and fingerprint of four different Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah and Monastrell), the last grown in two different locations, were studied during three growing seasons to determine how seasonal conditions and location affect the content of berry anthocyanins and their relative percentages. Important differences in the content of anthocyanins were detected among varieties—Monastrell grapes from one of the locations presenting the highest anthocyanin content—when expressed as μg g−1 of skin. However, due to the large berry size of Monastrell grapes, when the results were expressed as mg kg−1 of berry, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grapes presented the highest concentration. Significant differences were found as regards growing season, the concentration of anthocyanins being lowest in 2003, the warmest year. As regards the relative percentage of the different anthocyanins, substantial differences were found between varieties, but again, the results were also influenced by the year under study. When the percentages of anthocyanins were used as variables in a discriminant analysis, a 100% correct classification of the four different varieties was obtained. Moreover, to check the suitability of this tool for classifying varieties, data referring to the anthocyanin percentages of the four varieties grown in very different agroecological conditions and at different ripening stages were tested with the model we have built, 89% of correct classification being achieved.
Pastor del Rio, J. L. a. J. A. K. (2006). “Development of Proanthocyanidins in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir Grapes and Extraction into Wine.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic 57(2): 125-132.
The effect of grape maturity on proanthocyanidin concentration, composition and transfer into wine was studied. Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir grapes (Pommard clone) were monitored for three consecutive vintages (2001 to 2003). Proanthocyanidin content was monitored by reversedphase HPLC after acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). After three growing seasons, results indicated that an increase in heat summation between fruit set and veraison was associated with an increase in proanthocyanidin content in grapes and wine. Maturity did not have a consistent effect on the total proanthocyanidin content in wine, but the proportion of seed-derived proanthocyanidins extracted consistently increased with maturity.
Pirie, A. a. M. G. M. (1978). “Interrelationships of Sugars, Anthocyanins, Total Phenols and Dry Weight in the Skin of Grape Berries During Ripening.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic 28: 204-209.
The relationship between levels of anthocyanins, total phenols and sugars in the skin of ripening grapes (Vitis vinifera cvs. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon) was studied in the fruit during the period from véraison to maturity. In grapes with a wide range of anthocyanin contents per unit area of skin there was a good correlation between sugar content of the skin and levels of phenolic substances. The closest correlations, e.g. sugar vs. anthocyanin (r = 0.96) and sugar vs. total phenols (r = 0.95), were found in the first five weeks after véraison. There was a poor correlation between berry Brix levels and levels of polyphenolic substances in the skin at all stages of ripening (r = 0.44-0.45). The role of sugars in the regulation of phenolic biosynthesis in ripening grapes is discussed.